An Integrative Contextual Coaching Practice and the freshpractice Framework


This is a short treatise to clarify the structure of my practice, its components and how they relate to each other, the specific dynamic processes encountered and engaged in, resourced references, and the foundations it is based on.

My practice is an integrative contextual coaching practice, which I will refer to as “freshpractice,” or practice.

My coaching practice comprises

Running the Business {based on “My Practice Plan”},

My Personal Coaching Models (of Positive Psychology Coaching in the Workplace and Developmental Coaching in the Workplace) {based on “My Approach to Coaching”},

My Informed (Reflective) Practitioner Model {based on “My Professional Development Plan”}.

The Integrative Contextual Coaching Framework is the holding structure of “My Model” and comprises all components of the coaching process.

The framework also guides “My Plans,” such as the practice plan (the marketing plan and the business development plan) and the professional development plan.

The framework is a model of engagement in the coaching process; it is one part of the freshpractice coaching models, it is one part of freshpractice.

To make it more confusing, I will use “freshpractice” to refer to my practice, my personal models, the framework, or the utilization of the models or the framework.

The integrative framework is a coaching meta-model based on a system of thought; it provides themes and principles to orient ourselves.

The framework offers a means to guide thinking and understanding; makes complex ideas accessible; highlights interrelationships; assimilates diverse cross-disciplinary and multi-theoretical knowledge bases; provides a different approach from the medical model; leverages the complementary nature of both empirical and constructivist narrative approaches to theory and evidence.

The medical model (of physical illness) is based on the assumption that physical illness has biological causes which can be diagnosed and cured by appropriate medical intervention.

The resulting treatment outcome is seen as due to specific, active ingredients.

The medical model involves a distressed client, an explanatory theory for distress, a diagnosis based on a diagnostic system, accompanying treatment derived from theory, and the outcome of deficit reduction.

The two primary traditions claiming validity as ways of knowing are the empirical, logico-scientific tradition and the constructivist-narrative approach.

Executive coaching as a discipline benefits from both quantitative and qualitative methods. An evidence-based model is grounded in empirical research.

Some common themes identified through case studies point to the following outcome effectiveness factors:

a trusting relationship is critical to success,

environmental context is key, and

the coach’s belief in the efficacy of his approach is more important than the particular approach itself.

These are in accord with adult learning theory and experiential learning theory, where we stipulate that (a) a learning relationship furthers a “learner identity,” and (b) learning and behavior result from the interaction of the individual and the environment.

A coach is your collaborative partner in positive growth.

Within a context of potential positive change, with a shared view of why coaching is done, we establish a collaborative working alliance with the explicit role for the coach to assess, challenge, and support the client’s purpose to expand the client’s development, performance, or skill set.

In most stripped-bare terms, what do we have in coaching? We have a coaching scenario, a client, and a coach.

How do we approach these three dimensions or components?

What is a client? A client is a human. What is a human?

We have 27 million books telling us what a human is, and we have not yet exhausted the answer.

Let’s begin with this: a client is a sense and meaning maker.

Taking a step back, we observe: that we have a client who constructs a world and steps into it to live her life. A client, a world, a life. Doesn’t get simpler than that. And then, it is all there is.

To add some spice to the story, we may name the many impacting factors and essential elements of the coaching process: 

adults learn from experience; 

the client takes ownership of her learning; 

critical reflection, dialogue, and reflective action must be integrated with direct experience for a complete learning cycle; 

cultural differences, value orientations, and culture-group membership all influence our perceptions and interactions.

A Note on the use of the word “my”

I use the word “my” to point to some specific idea; not to take possession of the idea, which I would consider an absurd attitude, since all ideas, no matter how new or creatively generated they may seem, are already in use in the life of human minds or they have been in some moment in history. This is my ideology on intellectual property. So, the clever man or woman, sitting in some fancy office in an institution or at home, putting one word in front of another and building sentences, and then claiming victoriously, “I have done this,” forgets that, yes, you have done this, but you have done it being carried by a million years of human history and creativity and by a hundred billion human souls that came before you.

Parts of The Framework

(1) The Contextual Coaching Model.

Here again, the word “context” may become confusing since the “framework” also is “contextual,” and ‘why is the framework contextual?’ because it is based on the “contextual model.” Context simply means structure or form, and contextual means merely taking into account the structures and forms of the issue at hand.

The structures and forms of the contextual model are the seven themes of engagement and the seven principles of effective coaching; these generate some of the goals, tasks, and outcomes.

The contextual model just provides general principles; it is a categorization tool.

(2) The Engagement.

This brings together the aspects of building a meaningful relationship, forming a working alliance, flourishing in the flow, positive relationships, and accomplishment.

(3) The Temporal View on Coaching. The Two Perspectives: The Phases of the Coaching Engagement and The Stages of the Change Process

We can conceptualize the temporal view on coaching from two different perspectives:

the whole coaching engagement that moves in phases, from entry-contracting, through to closing, evaluation, and follow-up;

the client “self” moving through a change process, conceptualized in the transtheoretical change model TTM in terms of stages of change.

Additionally, there are temporal perspectives that are utilized in different approaches to coaching:

biological maturation theories, such as the adaptation theory of Baltes;

phases of life theories, such as the psycho-social theory of identity development of Erickson, Levinson;

stages of development, such as Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, Kegan’s theory of the developing self, Loevinger’s theory of ego development;

transition theories, such as Bridges’ theory of life transitions.

Stages of Change 

The temporal view refers to mainly two perspectives: the phases of the engagement and the stages of the change process.

The stages of the change process are delineated in the “Temporal Map of the Coaching Process: Stages of Change,” which is part of the “Integrative-Contextual Coaching Framework.”

Each stage gives rise to the main goals of the stage to be held in focus by the coach and focal competencies to be developed or strengthened by the client for sustainable progress in the change process.

The preparatory contemplation stage gives rise to the primary goal of awareness-raising, which is achieved by enhancing the focal competencies of self-awareness and contextual awareness of the client.

The contemplation stage gives rise to the main purpose of exploring the willingness and ability to change, which is achieved by enhancing the intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy of the client.

The planning stage gives rise to the primary goal of preparing for action, which is achieved by strengthening congruent goal setting or goal intentions and commitment through implementation intentions.

The action stage gives rise to the primary goal of immersing in concrete experience, which is achieved by enhancing the relevant capacities [of stress tolerance, psychological flexibility, and openness to experience {which were previously nurtured in the preparatory contemplation stage by building environmental receptiveness or contextual awareness}].

The maintenance/termination stage gives rise to the primary goal of integrating learnings and valuing self-regulated learning, which is achieved by enhancing the reflective capacity of the client.

To use sound bytes:

Moving successfully through the stages of change involves:

Raising awareness,

Crystalizing willingness and ability beliefs,

Preparing for action,

Supporting action, and 

Integrating learnings.

Raising awareness enhances awareness. 

Crystalizing willingness by enhancing self-knowledge of values and needs facilitates  choosing congruence to self-actualize and experience flow. 

Crystalizing ability beliefs enhances self-efficacy. 

Preparing for action involves making choices through goal-setting (or goal intentions). 

Preparing for action involves commitment through implementation intentions. 

Targeted competencies include

Self-awareness ~ know the components of your experience. 

Contextual awareness ~ know your environment. 

Self-knowledge ~ know your self {in terms of values, needs, and strengths}. 

Self-efficacy ~ increase supportive core self-evaluations [confidence ~ self-esteem, locus of control, and emotional stability]. 

Choice and Commitment ~ hope [goal, agency, and pathways]. 

Reflection-in-action ~ resilience, optimism, [confidence whether in self or the outcome of the experience as learnings], and self-regulation. 

Reflection-on-action ~ self-regulation. 

Whole Engagement ~ Self-Generativity, positive emotion, regenerativity, and willpower. 

Increase Capacities

Cognitive ~ know yourself. 

Affective ~ emotional stability, experiencing, acceptance, forgiveness, and gratitude. 

Motivational ~ agency [willpower], commitment, and congruence [self-concordance, values-based, strengths-based]. 

Interpersonal ~ intimacy, trust, love and being loved, caring, kindness, and compassion. 

Moral ~ cultural awareness. 

Ethical ~ social awareness, empathy, equity, and social justice. 

Resources to effectively progress through a change cycle: Internal Resources

Awareness – Beliefs – Intentions

Skills – Abilities – Talent

Cognitive – Affective – Behavioral (motor skill) – Conative

Personal history

Psychodynamic traits

Maturity and self-confidence


Attachment patterns

Knowledge: procedural, process, steps, formula, recipe, distraction strategies

Resources to effectively progress through a change cycle: External Resources

Social – interpersonal support: encouragement and persuasion, vicarious modeling

(4) The Knowledge Base: Perspectives and Approaches.

The framework aspires to be humanistic and person-centered in its approach to the client as a valued human being; guided by experiential learning and adult learning principles; inspired by a balanced view of positive psychology; utilizing the transtheoretical model of change for doing the work of change.

To describe the framework in short: it comprises structures, a relationship, a change process, and engagement phases.

By applying the integrative-contextual framework for coaching to positive psychology coaching in the workplace (PPCW), we focus on the special topics in PPCW of wellbeing, resilience, and achievement.

By applying the integrative-contextual framework for coaching to developmental coaching in the workplace (DCW), we focus on the special topics in DCW of leader development, organization development, and business development.

As a note on special topics, I need to mention that there are no special topics; boundaries are artificially generated for practical purposes; what is relevant for positive psychology coaching is also relevant for developmental coaching.

The special and common topics are described in the sections “concepts in a sentence or two” and “concepts in 500 words, or less (or more)”.

What is special about PPC? We work for your happiness and wellbeing using a PP approach.

What is special about DC? We work for your happiness and wellbeing using an adult development approach.

What’s the difference? Why one or the other?

Inputs, Outputs

Goals, Tasks, and aimed for Outcomes arise/flow from the structural aspect of the framework – the contextual model;

Roles, Responsibilities, and Attitudes arise/flow from the relational aspect of the framework – the engagement;

Results, Outcomes achieved, and Transformations arise/flow from the process aspect of the framework – the phases of engagement and the stages of change.

Part (1) The Contextual Coaching Model

The Seven Thematic Factors of the Model:

What are the common themes that are effective in coaching, and within what context?

    1. An explicit outcome or goal that both parties, the coach and client, work toward collaboratively.
    2. A sensible rationale or explanation for how coaching as a process fits the client’s needs and situation.
    3. A procedure or set of steps consistent with the rationale and requires both the client’s and coach’s active participation.
    4. A meaningful relationship between a client and coach such that the client believes the coach is there to help and will work in the client’s best interest.
    5. A collaborative working alliance in which the coach’s explicit role is to expand the client’s development, performance, or skill set, appropriately pacing the intervention to maintain a challenge and facilitate change.
    6. Client’s ability and readiness to change and the extent to which the client is both able and willing to do the work of change.
    7. Coach’s ability and readiness to help the client create change. The coach’s ability to facilitate the client’s change process rests on the coach’s ability to recognize and deal with his own personal issues arising from the coaching process.

The Contextual Model in Evidence-Based Practice

Regarding the seven contextual components of the contextual model, each theory or approach to coaching has its view of

    1. an identified desired outcome,
    2. a rationale,
    3. procedures or techniques that follow from the rationale,
    4. a meaningful relationship, 
    5. a collaborative working alliance, 
    6. the client’s readiness to change, and 
    7. the coach’s ability and readiness to facilitate the client’s change.

Coaching provides a context for positive client growth.

The coach is a collaborative partner in positive development.

What does each theory or approach say about these seven contextual components?

What evidence do the perspectives and approaches provide regarding these?

What is noted as important; what is highlighted by each?

What does increase the likelihood of success according to each approach?

What is known about the particular lens used by which the coach is making sense of the client and their situation?

The contextual model offers coaches a meta-view to explicate how they use knowledge and expertise in the service of a particular client.

Putting the contextual components in a temporal sequence with the understanding that the progression may not be linear, one-way, or fluid, the following questions arise:

Meaningful relationship: What is the importance of building a positive relationship; what do the evidence and theory say?

The collaborative working alliance: What is the importance of a shared view of why coaching is done?

How will the client’s agency be honored in case of mandated or forced coaching; how will the client be able to trust that the coaching is set up for their success?

Rationale: What is the lens through which the coach makes sense of it all?

How are hypotheses formed and assessments made of the client or situation?

Process: What procedures will be utilized to engage the client in positive growth? How are procedures consistent with the rationale?

Explicit goal: What is expected in coaching as the outcome? How are goals framed?

Core Coaching Principles Across Perspectives: Seven Principles of Effective Coaching

“How the coaching is conducted” leads us to the seven thematic factors; the contextual model gives us seven organizing themes through which all these approaches work similarly, a meta-model for knowledge bases for evidence-based practice.

“What is being done in coaching” gives us the principles for effective coaching, the core of the coaching process, and how the contextual themes are enacted.

Seven fundamental principles underpin the human change process

    1. collaboration,
    2. accountability,
    3. awareness,
    4. responsibility,
    5. commitment,
    6. action,
    7. results.

The platform from which the coaching work proceeds, the foundation of effective coaching, is the successful formation of a collaborative relationship, within which the coach can hold the client accountable.

A robust and positive working alliance is jointly designed; the coach and client spend some time discussing the nature and dynamics of their relationship to reach an articulated and shared understanding. The coach relies on the working alliance in holding the client accountable as the client is enacting specific action steps designed to move them toward their goals.

To hold the client accountable for completing tasks, the coach monitors and evaluates the client’s progress toward goals, addresses performance shortfalls directly and promptly, and celebrates learnings and progress.

Coach learning: Designing the working alliance and putting the structures for accountability in place – micro-skills, skills, competency, and mastery.

From the platform of Collaboration and Accountability, the coach and client work to raise the client’s awareness of the issues and help the client find ways to take responsibility for change.

Awareness-raising tools and ways include

360-degree feedback,

behavioral, cognitive, and emotional assessments,

direct real-life observations or shadow coaching, and 

the feedback generated from within the coaching session, as in the use of immediacy.

As the clients gain awareness of the issues, their understanding of their situation enables them to take responsibility for any change leading to a commitment to action to move forward toward goals and results.

Coaching task: match action steps to the client’s ability for change, enhance the client’s motivation levels, and further the client’s readiness for change.

Trying to change too much too soon can be a significant derailer; conversely, under-challenging action steps will fail to engage the client.

The essence of good coaching is results orientation directed toward a specific outcome or result.

Coaching is about systematically enacting these seven principles with particular tools and techniques to operationalize them.

Role of Expert Knowledge in Coaching

The Themes and Principles of the contextual model help guide practice.

Coaching is a learning alliance; what about providing specific content or expert knowledge related to the client’s goals?

Here the rationale and procedures of the approach we use will guide us.

There is a continuum from a nondirectional ask-not-tell approach which emphasizes the facilitation of client self-discovery, to a directional, tell-rather-than-ask approach which emphasizes direct feedback and advice-giving.

Moving along the ask-tell dimension is about striking the right balance between process facilitation and content or information delivery; this balance varies at different points in the overall coaching engagement and within individual coaching sessions.

Coach mastery: know when and how to

move across the ask-tell dimension;

promote self-discovery;

give expert-based authoritative or specialized information.

Monitor your coach behavior on this dimension for a potential overemphasis on either side.

Exercise: Write out a coaching scenario for how to impart important expert information in a timely and appropriate fashion, professionally and ethically, purely through facilitating a process that operationalizes the principles of coaching rather than through an instructor mode that emphasizes the delivery of expert knowledge.

An issue for coach reflective practice and supervision:

Reasons for slipping into expert telling mode may be

the coach’s applied coaching skills are challenged by a situation or are not very well developed;

o get the coaching conversation back on track when the coaching process may not be going as well as we would like;

to unconsciously reassure ourselves that we are bringing value to the conversation.

Consider why you are acting in one way or another in the session and whether your choice is consistent with the rationale and procedures from which you are operating.

Incorporate regular reflection on your use of knowledge and its application.

Use the contextual model to develop an evidence-based, reflective coaching practice.

Developing A Coaching Plan

Effective coaching involves developing a coaching plan for learning and behavior change. We assume this creates a foundation for mutual respect and an explicit agreement between the coach and the client. We ensure the following principles (of Andragogy) come to life:

    1. Do you know your why? Why do you need to learn or change?

Is it relevant to your life situation? Is the plan goal-oriented?

Does it need to be adjusted and worked on to be relevant and goal-oriented?

    1. Is it congruent with your self-concept? Does it assert your self-direction and sense of control?
    2. How can you make your own life experiences a resource to serve your learning?
    3. Does this plan address a real-life problem? Is it the right time to solve this issue? When do you need to learn and change? What if you wait and see? May this issue get resolved without a plan?
    4. How will you apply your learning? Where is your attention and focus required; is it a life situation, a task, or a problem?
    5. Does this plan link to your internal sense of purpose? Does it answer your desire to grow, develop, and make progress?

We welcome the coaching outcomes of Expanding Awareness and Enhancing Capabilities.

The main axis of engagement with and for coaching is the learning-performance continuum.

The main task of the client is to identify and plan needed change and work to achieve goals, making continuous improvements.

The coach’s main task is to facilitate the client’s learning process.

“How do adults learn?”

“How does this person see the world and make meaning of their experiences?”

The theories we hold about adult learning will shape how we address issues about the learning process, practice, and interactions with others and the environment.

Quality of Engagement

For the client to commit and engage in the coaching, they should be a voluntary participant in the process with an intrinsic motivation to be engaged. Is this the case?

The requirement of ownership, self-direction and intrinsic motivation are evoked by pondering questions such as:

“Can you see the coaching as an opportunity to learn?”

“How can we make the coaching relevant and tailored to your needs?”

“What is your agenda?”

The client is the expert on their life. Their knowledge is the primary information source on which to base the coaching engagement.

The quality of engagement is also linked to the quality of the coaching relationship and the coaching process. This trio; engagement, relationship, and process; feed into the trio of expanding client capacity through self-awareness, self-examination, and self-correction.

The Seven Themes and Corresponding Concepts of the Contextual Model

Theme 1: The coach and client become parties to the coaching to work collaboratively toward an explicit outcome or goal.

Guiding Concepts: Motivation – intrinsic and internalized motivation versus identified, introjected, or external motivation; Values;

Theme 2: As the client enters the coaching, the client’s needs and situation become the criteria to justify a sensible rationale or explanation for how coaching fits.

Guiding Concepts: Hope and optimism; Agency; Expectancy theory;

Theme 3: Client and coach participate actively in a procedure or set of steps consistent with the rationale.

Guiding Concepts: Participating with the beliefs it will be helpful and “I can”; psychological capacities, self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience; Signature strengths; Grit, passion, perseverance;

Theme 4: Client and coach establish a meaningful relationship.

{Client and coach social-emotional self diffuse into the meaningful relationship.}

Guiding Concepts: Coach becomes a trusted, reliable external resource; SDT and other need theories: connectedness; Attachment theory, Psychodynamic theory;

Theme 5: Client and coach take on explicit roles in a collaborative working alliance.

The coach’s explicit role is to expand the client’s self in terms of development, performance, or skill set. The coach’s task is to pace interventions appropriately, maintain challenge and support in balance, and facilitate change.

{Client and coach capacities diffuse into the working alliance.}

Guiding Concepts: Commitment; Subordinating self process to task process;

Theme 6: Client does the work of change.

The client brings the ability, readiness, and willingness to change to bear on the work of change.

Guiding Concepts: Intentional change model; Transtheoretical change model; Growth mindset or learning identity; Grit; Mental toughness;

Theme 7: The coach does facilitate the client’s change process.

Coach brings the ability, readiness, and willingness to help the client create change.

Guiding Concepts: Subordinating the coach’s self-process to the coaching task process; Coach Self-management. 

To reiterate the seven themes: we aim for 

  1. an explicit outcome or goal within (A.) a coaching context and (B.) the client’s life context. The coaching context forms the whole engagement, and the thematic factors form some nodes within it. Each thematic factor gives rise to some coaching tasks. 

The client context comprises [2. the client’s needs and situation, 2. a rationale for fit, 2. a relevant theory of self-determination, etc., 6. client self-efficacy beliefs, 6. the transtheoretical model of change].

  1. (a) Do the Work of Change through active participation; 3. (b) by embarking on the Coaching Process with the use of techniques, procedures, and a set of steps and engaging in the coaching tasks arising; and by doing the collaborative work of direction, alignment, and commitment.
  2. Build a meaningful relationship holding the client’s best interest and building the client’s belief in coaching efficacy and the coach’s ethic and helping motive.
  3. Build a collaborative working alliance with the explicit coach role of assessment, challenge, and support to expand the client’s development, performance, or skillset.
  4. Ensure the client is able and willing to change. Engage in the coaching tasks to assess, pace the intervention, maintain challenge, and adjust support.
  5. Ensure the coach is able and willing to facilitate change. Value Coach Mastery and show evidence of CPD, utilizing a Reflective practitioner model, Supervision, and development along the self-management dimension; evaluate self-mastery and process-mastery.

Part (2) The Engagement: A Meaningful Relationship and The Collaborative Working Alliance

A Meaningful Relationship

The coach’s primary task is to build a meaningful relationship. How do you do that?

(a) Build trust through (i) the coach’s way of being, which includes rapport, congruence, and empathy; (ii) unconditional acceptance [accomplished by the coach through their work on self] – judgment held with compassion and love and welcoming difference; and (iii) honesty, predictability, commitment, and reliability.

(b) Use Empathy to (i) enter the world of the client and (ii) help them make sense and meaning of what they encounter along the roads traveled together.

(c) Communicate an empathic, non-judgmental, authentic stance.

(d) Set up the context for success as you (i) ensure openness; (ii) enact the principles of coaching; (iii) enact an attitude based on the theoretical stance that people are their own best experts.

(e) Be Mindful: at each step of the way, the coach is mindful of different aspects; noticing, asking, inquiring, balancing, stretching and releasing, winding up and down, pulling and releasing.

A humanistic perspective and a person-centered approach serve well in building a meaningful relationship which then opens the gate to a transformative space wherein experiential learning can unfold and a flourishing life is nurtured. The experiential learning cycle is also the growth and positive change cycle.

The Collaborative Working Alliance

Building a collaborative working alliance is one of the primary roles of the coach. In addition, the “Coach Role” is to foster, facilitate, assist, help, support, aid, guide, and hold space; furthermore, the coach acts as partner, companion, collaborator, co-creator, co-constructor, vessel, channel, reflector, and mirror.

The “Coach Tasks” that flow out of the “Coach Roles” and lead to the outcomes we aim for in the working alliance are a robust challenge, candid feedback, and gentle confrontation, as well as empathic support, advocacy and inquiry.

The Coaching Context is where the Coach Self and the Client Self meet.

The coach self gives rise to coach goals which comprise (a) integrating knowledge with expertise, (b) having a claim to be evidence-based, such that the coach (i) can utilize the knowledge base in specific client contexts with discretion, and (ii) explain their approach.

The client self opens for scrutiny the aspect of

(a) client development, performance, and skillset,

(b) life goals,

(c) life domains,

(d) client psychological flexibility, psychological capacities, values, and strengths,

(e) client worldview, stance, frame of reference, acquired stuff of beliefs, built stuff of social-emotional development and cognitive development,

(f) client strengths, limitations, opportunities, and challenges.

In the context of coaching:

(a) values and strengths are two fundamental aspects of our self and our life;

(b) we construct goals based on values and strengths;

(c) this links our motivation to our goals in the form of intrinsic motivation;

(d) intrinsic motivation vitalizes our will and energizes our commitment to pursue our goals;

(e) this creates a sense of purpose and meaning.

Coaching gives a way to operationalize principles of optimal human functioning.

Avoiding a principle always involves a pay-off.

The coaching context is the space where come together the aspects of




Guidelines [such as pacing interventions, facilitating change, providing support and challenge, expanding the client self, and explicit coach role as a partner in positive client growth], 

Broader context – the organization, 

Client context,

Meeting medium,

Coach-client interface,

Active participation,


Knowledge base,

Explicit goal setting,

Goal tracking,

A shared view on why coaching is being done.

Part (3) Phases of the Coaching Engagement

The Business Coaching Process: Key Process Steps

Entry Contracting with the Organization –> Orientation & Initial Brief –> Contracting with Client –> Assessment –> Coaching Implementation –> Evaluation & Closing

Entry contracting is a key process step that we name a Phase.

A key process step comprises sub-process steps which we name Steps to Take.

Every step entails actions to be performed, skills to be employed and exercised, and outcomes to be targeted.

Sub-process steps utilize Models and Tools, including techniques, forms, reports, plans, questionnaires, theories, approaches, guiding frameworks, orientations, principles, structured inquiries, and structured processes.

Models and Tools are guiding us to Outcomes.

At each phase and for each outcome generator, we aim for clear tasks, responsibilities, outcome definition, rationale, guiding structure, announcements of beginnings and endings, the announcement of outcome, celebration, purpose, potential obstacles, alternative ways, decision points, milestones, evaluation, feedback, and a report generated.


Client outcomes at the output level, at the level of actualizing capabilities, comprise self-awareness, performance improvement, performance breakthrough, and performance transformation.

Client outcomes at the human dimension or psycho-spiritual level comprise intentional behavior change; performance-enhancing thinking change, such as self-efficacy beliefs, hope, optimism, mental toughness, grit, growth mindset or learner identity; deepening self-awareness.

Client outcomes of the coaching engagement with immediate impact on the client’s life include enhancing their work habits, perspectives, or relationships; increasing their awareness of the impacts their habits, beliefs, and perspectives have on their relationships; clarifying how important it is for them to change how they lead their work and their life.

Client outcomes of the coaching process comprise uncovering inner assumptions; developing authentic ways; optimizing the inner operating system; gaining insight into internal beliefs that guide behavior; gaining insight into their behavior and what is driving it; discovering underlying beliefs of attitudes; identifying challenges and opportunities for effectiveness; enhancing what they are doing and why; achieving results; delivering more rapid and lasting results; influencing others; leading self and others; empowering others.

Part (4) The Knowledge Base: Perspectives and Approaches

The following comprise the approaches and perspectives of the engagement framework:

the Knowledge Base,

Concepts and Constructs,

Tools, Maps, Frameworks,

Teachers, Mentors, Sources of Wisdom,

References, Resources,

Practices, Applied Theory.

The last item, Practices and Applied Theory, is presented as a direct input to conversations whenever they may serve the client. The other items are mainly input to my mastery and ways (of doing in conversations).

The Knowledge Base

The knowledge base is brought together in the Mastery Handbook. It serves as a learning tool for my ongoing mastery journey.

“Mastery” together with “Communications” and “Conversations” forms the three pillars of My Personal Knowledge Mastery Model.

“The Handbook” is the primary resource for marketing talk, authority talk, and process communications such as announcing guidelines or principles, etc.

It also contains structures, procedures, forms, questionnaires, tools, and practices that become input to conversations.

Some of the theories and research that I ground my work on are

the Transtheoretical Change model,

Goal-setting research,

Emotion research,

Motivation theory,

Self-determination theory,

Positive Psychology,

Adult learning theory,

Constructive developmental theory,

Constructivist psychology,

Humanistic philosophical stance,

Person-centered, Gestalt, existential, process-experiential approaches.

Concepts and Constructs of Coaching for Optimal Functioning and Wellbeing

wellbeing: the subjective, psychological, and whole person

psychological capacities

capabilities, talent

skill, competence

Needs and needs fulfillment

engagement, flow

purpose, meaning

virtues, character strengths


psychological flexibility


mental toughness, hardiness

grit, passion, perseverance



mindfulness, self-awareness

self-knowledge, self-deception, self-sabotage




intrinsic motivation